Biology I

 
  • Biotechnology B11203001

    Biotechnology B11203001

    Unit – I A Introduction to Biotechnology Biotechnology Biotechnology is a branch of biology, It deals with the different techniques of using live creatures/organisms or enzymes from organisms/produce products and processes useful to humans. Microbe-mediated processes like the making of curd, bread, wine can be considered as the form of biotechnology. Nowadays, the term biotechnology is used in a restricted sense. […]

     
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  • Gene It’s Nature, Expression and Regulation B11202009 (Edit)

    Gene It’s Nature, Expression and Regulation B11202009 (Edit)

    Unit – V B Types of Non-Genetic RNA (m-RNA) There are three types of non-genetic RNA. They are m-RNA, r-RNA and t-RNA. These RNAs are produced on DNA template by the process called transcription. m – RNA or Messenger RNA: The m – RNA molecule is always simple and straight without any fold and is transcribed from one strand of DNA. It […]

     
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  • Gene It’s Nature, Expression and Regulation B11202008

    Gene It’s Nature, Expression and Regulation B11202008

    Unit – V A Structure of RNA Differences between RNA molecules and DNA molecule: RNA contains ribose sugar units while DNA contains deoxyribose sugar unit. RNA contains the base uracil while DNA contains thymine. RNA is single stranded, except in some viruses while DNA is double stranded structure. RNA molecules are much smaller than DNA molecules. RNA is mainly formed in […]

     
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  • Gene It’s Nature, Expression and Regulation B11202007

    Gene It’s Nature, Expression and Regulation B11202007

    Unit – IV Packaging of DNA The length of a DNA double helix molecule in a typical mammalian cell is approximately 2.2 metres.  This length can be obtained by multiplying the total number of base pairs present in the DNA double helix, which is 6.6 X 109, with the distance between two consecutive base pairs, which is 0.34 × 10-9 […]

     
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  • Gene It’s Nature, Expression and Regulation B11202006

    Gene It’s Nature, Expression and Regulation B11202006

    Unit – III B Semiconservative Replication of DNA Activation of Nucleotides: All the four types of DNA nucleotides are present in nucleoplasm in the form of their monophosphates. They are activated into triphosphates like dATP, dGTP, dTTP and dCTP using ATP in presence of enzyme called phosphorylase. This process is known as activation of nucleotides. dAMP   + ATP →    […]

     
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  • Gene It’s Nature, Expression and Regulation B11202005

    Gene It’s Nature, Expression and Regulation B11202005

    Unit – III A Replication of DNA The process in which a DNA molecule produces exact copy or replica of itself. is known as replication of DNA. In eukaryotes, replication of DNA takes place inside the nucleus. In DNA replication, the double helix (parent strand) unzips forming two separate strands called templates. These templates provide the base sequences used to synthesize new DNA […]

     
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  • Gene It’s Nature, Expression and Regulation B11202004

    Gene It’s Nature, Expression and Regulation B11202004

    Unit – II B Structure of DNA Each cell in a particular living organism contains the exact same DNA. The size of the DNA polymer is directly related to the complexity of the organism; more complex organisms tend to have larger molecules of DNA, while less complex organisms have smaller DNA.   For e.g. The DNA in simple bacteria contains about 8 million nucleotides, […]

     
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  • Gene It’s Nature, Expression and Regulation B11202003

    Gene It’s Nature, Expression and Regulation B11202003

    Unit – II A Nucleic Acids In 1869, Friedrich Miescher separated cellular substance from the nucei of pus cell and called it ‘Nuclein’. Due to acidic nature, the substance is further called as nucleic acid. There are two types of nucleic acids a) Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) found primarily in the nucleus of cells and b) Ribonucleic acid (RNA) found mainly in the cytoplasm […]

     
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  • Gene It’s Nature, Expression and Regulation B11202002

    Gene It’s Nature, Expression and Regulation B11202002

    Unit – I B DNA as Genetic Material (Contd.) Avery, Macleod and McCarty Experiment: In 1944  Oswald Avery, Collin Macleod and Maclyn McCarty performed the same experiment as that by Griffith but their aim was definite to locate the factor responsible for a transformation of non-lethal R-type bacteria into lethal S – Type bacteria. They used a test tube assay instead of […]

     
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  • Gene It’s Nature, Expression and Regulation B11202001

    Gene It’s Nature, Expression and Regulation B11202001

    Unit – I A Gene and Its Nature A gene may be defined as a segment of DNA which is responsible for inheritance and expression of a particular character.A gene is a segment of DNA that provides instructions for synthesis of a specific protein or a particular type of RNA. A gene provides instructions for synthesis of a specific protein […]

     
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