Unit – IV B

Heart Surgeries

Coronary Angiography:

The red arrow shows the block in the coronary artery. The green arrow shows the correction after angioplasty.

  • Imaging is done to check the arteries that supply the heart muscle with blood Coronary angiography. Furthermore, narrowed or blocked coronary arteries can be imaged by Angiography (which are normally not visible on a normal X-ray)
  • A local anesthesia is injected and a fine flexible catheter is passed into the femoral artery, through the aorta, and into a coronary artery. A contrast dye is injected through the catheter and a series of x rays taken. Using this blocked position of the coronary artery is located and extent of blockage is decided. The procedure is painless.


Coronary Angioplasty:

  • Coronary angioplasty is an operation done to clear flow of blood when the coronary arteries are narrowed or blocked by fatty deposits with the help of a baloon catheter.
  • Under local anesthesia, a guide wire is inserted through the femoral artery in the groin and up into the affected coronary artery.
  • A baloon catheter is passed up the wire and the baloon is inflated in the narrowed area to widen it. Sometimes, a metal tube called a stent is inserted afterward. It keeps the artery open.

Coronary Bypass Surgery:

  • It is an operation to circumvent narrowed or blocked coronary arteries by grafting additional blood vessels to transmit blood flow.
  • During this procedure the heart is temporarily stopped and blood circulation and oxygenation is taken over by a heart lung machine.


Pace Maker:

  • Artificial pacemaker is an electronic device. It is surgically fitted in body if there is arrhythmic impulse production in the heart.
  • This device is connected to SA node by wires. The device is preprogrammed to give rhythmic impulses.
  • They are powered by Ni-Cd batteries and have life of 3 to 7 years.

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