Unit – I D

## Problems on Solutions and Colligative Properties

1. 6 g of urea was dissolved in 500 g of water. calculate the percentage by mass of urea in the solution. (1.186 % by mass) problems
2. 34.2 g of glucose is dissolved in 400 g of water. Calculate the percentage by mass of glucose solution. (7.48 % by mass. problems
3. A solution is prepared by dissolving a certain amount of solute in 500 g of water. The percentage by mass of a solute in a solution is 2.38. Calculate mass of solute (12.19 g)
4. 58 cm3 of ethyl alcohol was dissolved in 400 cm3 of water to form 454 cm3 of a  solution of ethyl alcohol. Calculate percentage by volume of ethyl alcohol in water. (12.78 % by volume)
5. 12.8 cm3 of benzene is dissolved in 16.8 cm3 of xylene. Calculate percentage by volume of benzene. (43.24 % by volume.
6. 23 g of ethyl alcohol (molar mass 46 g mol-1) is dissolved in 54 g of water (molar mass 18 g mol-1). Calculate the mole fraction of ethyl alcohol and water in solution. (0.1429 and 0.8571)
7. 4.6 cm3 of methyl alcohol is dissolved in 25.2 g of water. Calculate a) percentage by mass of methyl alcohol b) mole fraction of methyl alcohol and water. Given density of methyl alcohol = 0.7952 g cm-3, and C = 12, H = 1 and O = 16. (12.68, 0.0755, 0.9245)
8. Calculate the mole fraction of HCl in a solution of HCl containing 24.8 % of HCl by mass. Given H = 1, Cl = 35.5 (0.0347)
9. A solution of NaOH (molar mass 40 g mol-1) was prepared by dissolving 1.6 g of NaOH in 500 cm3 of water. Calculate the molarity of NaOH solution.  (0.08 mol dm-3)
10. 11.11 g of urea (NH2CONH2) was dissolved in 100 g of water. calculate the molarity of the solution. Given N = 14, H = 1, C = 12, O = 16. (1.852 mol kg-1).
11. 34.2 g of sugar was dissolved in water to produce 214.2 g of sugar syrup. Calculate molality and mole fraction of sugar in the syrup. Given C = 12, H = 1 and O = 16. (0.556 mol kg-1, 0.0099)
12. Calculate the mole fraction of solute in its 2 molal aqueous solution. (0.0347)
13. Calculate molarity and molality of the sulphuric acid solution of density 1.198 g cm-3 containing 27 % by mass of sulphuric acid (molar mass 98 g mol-1). (3.77 mol kg-1, 3.301 mol dm-3)
14. Calculate the mole fraction, molality and molarity of HNO3 in a solution containing 12.2 % HNO3. Given density of HNO3 as 1.038 g cm-3, H = 1, N = 14, O = 16. (0.0396, 2.205 mol kg-1, 2.01mol dm-3)
15. Sulphuric acid is 95.8 % by mass. Calculate mole fraction and molarity of H2SO4 of density 1.91 g cm-3. Given H = 1, S = 32, O = 16. (0.80730, 17.98 mol dm-3)
16. Commercially available concentrated hydrochloric acid is an aqueous solution containing 38% HCl gas by mass. If its density is 1.1 g cm-3, calculate the molarity of HCl solution and also calculate the mole fraction of HCl and H2O.  (11.45 mol dm-3, 0.232, 0.768)
17. An aqueous solution of NaOH is marked 10% (w/w). The density of the solution is 1.070 g cm-3. Calculate molarity, molality and mole fraction of NaOH in water. Given Na = 23, H =1 , O = 16 (2.675 mol dm-3, 2.77 mol kg-1, 0.0476, 0.9523)
18. Battery acid 4.22 M aqueous H2SO4 solution, and has density 1.21 g cm-3. What is the molality of H2SO4. Given H = 1, S = 32, O = 16 (5.298 mol kg-1)
19. Calculate the mole fraction and molality of HNO3 in a solution containing 12.2 % HNO3. Given atomic masses H = 1, N = 14 and O = 16.
20. Calculate molarity and molality of 6.3 % solution of nitric acid having density 1.04 g cm-3. Given atomic masses H = 1, N = 14 and O = 16.
21. A solution of glucose in water is labelled as 10 % (w/w). Calculate a) molality and b) molarity of the solution. Given the density of the solution is 1.20 g mL-1  and molar mass of glucose is 180 g mol-1.
22. Sulphuric acid is 95.8 % by mass. Calculate the mole fraction and molarity of H2SO4. Density of H2SO4 solution is 1.91 g cm-3.
23. The density of 5.35 M H2SO4 solution is 1.22 g cm-3. What is molality of a solution?
24. 10.0 g KCl is dissolved in 1000 g of water. If the density of the solution is 0.997 g cm-3, calculate a) molarity and b) molality of the solution. Atomic masses K = 39 g mol-1 , Cl = 35.5 g mol-1.

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